The objectives of the Climate Observing System are under the framework of the Global Climate Observation System (GCOS) and the China Climate Observation System (CCOS), guided by the research results of China's meteorological development strategy, and taking full account of the weather and climate in the Northwest China. , and the characteristics of ecological environment, as well as the demand for the service of social and economic development in the northwest region under the premise of the current climate observation system defects, based on the existing climate observation system in the northwest region, scientific layout, rational planning, unified integration of relevant departments The observing station network, through the addition of necessary ground-based observatories, increased observations of observations in the process of large-scale changes, and fully applied modern technologies and means, vigorously developed space-based and space-based monitoring, and eventually built a comprehensive, three-dimensional Arid climate observation system (ACOS) without space detection cracks.
The principle of the construction of climate observation system
1 Principles of spatial layout of ground-based observatory network The spatial layout of observing station network of climate automatic observatories should take into account many factors such as climate-affected areas, types of underlying surface, geographical environment, climate types, and human activities. First, the northwestern region is the westerly wind zone (middle and western of the northwestern region, including the Xinjiang and Qaidam Basin and the central and western Hexi Corridor of Gansu), and the East Asian monsoon (eastern of the northwestern region, including east of the eastern section of the Hexi Corridor of Shaanxi, Ningxia and Gansu (Qinghai, eastern Qinghai) and plateau monsoons (Qinghai and Qilian mountains) are the major climate-affected areas; secondly, various underlying surfaces such as farmland, forests, grasslands, rivers, lakes, deserts, deserts, oasis, glaciers, and snow covers coexist in the region; Third, the region contains a variety of geographical environments including the Tibetan Plateau, the Loess Plateau, the Mongolian Plateau, hilly areas, Hetao agriculture and pastoral areas, etc. Fourthly, there are arid, semi-arid, semi-humid and humid regions/climatic types; Fifth, according to the classification of human activity, there are no human activity areas, minor human activity areas, and significant human activity areas. Therefore, the layout of the station network should reflect the representativeness of the above factors.
2 Grading principle for network-based observing stations The observing station network is divided into three levels. The first floor represents stations: weather stations and weather stations are added to high-resolution grids to perform weather and climate encryption observations;
The second floor, the key station: in the typical ecological type area, establish an ecological climate test station;
The third level, the key stations: establish a land-based process comprehensive test base and a global atmospheric background station and regional atmospheric background station in the area affected by the large-scale climate system;
Build an integrated mobile observation platform as an effective complement to the ground-based observation system.
3 According to the detection height, classify the ground observation: the sensor is on the surface of the earth, that is, the ground station network;
Space-based detection: The sensors are located above the surface of the Earth, below the mid-level atmosphere, and are mainly based on aircraft detection;
Space-based monitoring: The sensor is outside the middle atmosphere, that is, satellite remote sensing monitoring, and inversion of surface and atmospheric characteristics and its laws through satellite remote sensing data.
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