Introduction to basic knowledge of mercury

Hg (mercury, Hg), also known as the mercury is the only liquid at room temperature and flowable metal. The specific gravity is 13.595 and the specific gravity of the vapor is 6.9. Mercury is easily evaporated into the air and causes harm because: 1. It has evaporated at 0 °C. The higher the temperature, the faster the evaporation. The evaporation rate increases by about 1.2 to 1.5 times for every 10 °C increase, and the evaporation increases when the air flows. . 2. Mercury is insoluble in water and can be evaporated into the air through the surface water seal. 3, the viscosity is small and the fluidity is large, it is very fragile into small mercury beads, and it remains in the gaps of the workbench, the ground, etc. without holes. It is difficult to remove, and the surface area is increased and a large amount of evaporation is formed, forming a secondary pollution source. 4. Surfaces, work benches, walls and ceilings all absorb mercury vapor. Sometimes, the mercury workshop is used for other purposes, and there is still a problem of mercury hazard. Workers' clothing and skin contamination can be brought to the home to cause harm.
There are many kinds of metal mercury production, such as the mining of mercury mines and the smelting of mercury, especially the soil-fired mercury smelting, pollution of air, soil and water quality; Check and repair mercury thermometers and sphygmomanometers. Flowmeters, liquid level gauges, control instruments, barometers, mercury rectifiers, etc., especially with hot mercury method, which are more harmful; manufacturing fluorescent lamps, ultraviolet lamps, film projection lamps, X-ray tubes, etc.; a raw material of a compound, or a catalyst such as a mercury cathode for salt electrolysis to produce chlorine gas, caustic soda, etc.; an amalgam method for extracting a precious metal such as gold and silver, gold plating, a liquid gold, etc.; a dental amalgam filling a dental caries; a coolant of a helium reactor; and many more.
Inorganic compounds such as mercury nitrate, mercury (Hg (NO 3) 2) , mercuric chloride (HgCl 2), calomel (HgCl), mercury bromide (HgBr 2), arsenic acid, mercury (HgAsO 4), mercury sulfide (HgS) , mercury sulfate (HgSO 4 ), oxidized mercury (HgO), mercury cyanide (Hg (CN) 2 ), etc., used in the synthesis of mercury compounds, or as a catalyst, pigments, coatings, etc.; some also as a drug, oral, Inhalation of dust and skin coating can cause poisoning. In addition, thunder mercury (Hg(CNO) 2 · 1/2H 2 O) is used to manufacture detonators and the like.

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